Entanglement

Entanglement, or knotted-ness, is a metaphor often used in the consideration of dependent origination. This week, Sam led our Sangha discussion following excerpts from talks on this topic by Sharon Salzberg and Christina Feldman.

Here is the full talk “Happiness And Mindfulness” by Christina Feldman (1995): https://dharmaseed.org/teacher/44/talk/10142/

Here is the talk “Disentangling” by Sharon Salzberg (1983): https://dharmaseed.org/teacher/165/talk/2594/

Sam read a short quote from “Beyond Buddhism” by Stephen Batchelor and the following quote from the Long Discourses of the Buddha #15:

This dependent origination is deep and appears deep. It is because of not understanding and not penetrating this teaching that [people] become tangled like string, knotted like a ball of thread, and matted like rushes and reeds, and it doesn’t escape the places of loss, the bad places, the underworld, transmigration.

How does the mass of suffering originate? Name and form are conditions for consciousness. Consciousness is a condition for name and form. Name and form are conditions for contact. Contact is a condition for feeling. Feeling is a condition for craving. Craving is a condition for grasping. Grasping is a condition for continued existence. Continued existence is a condition for rebirth. Rebirth is a condition for old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress to come to be. That is how this entire mass of suffering originates.

So it is, Ānanda, that feeling is a cause of craving. Craving is a cause of seeking. Seeking is a cause of gaining material possessions. Gaining material possessions is a cause of assessing. Assessing is a cause of desire and lust. Desire and lust is a cause of attachment. Attachment is a cause of possessiveness. Possessiveness is a cause of stinginess. Stinginess is a cause of safeguarding. Owing to safeguarding, many bad, unskillful things come to be: taking up the rod and the sword, quarrels, arguments, and fights, accusations, divisive speech, and lies.


Extending and Maturing Mindfulness

Most of us were introduced to meditation through paying attention to breath, sounds, or sensations, as ways to calm our unruly minds.  While these provide an excellent point of departure, even the early Buddhist teachings recommend that as we gain a foothold in meditation, we learn how to extend and augment our practice, both deepening it and integrating it into our lives. 

Michael guided our reflections this past Sunday, as we explored these ancient yet fresh ways of extending and developing our practice.

Upadana

Today Mike B. led our Sangha by playing a talk on the topic of Upadana, or “clinging” by Akincino.

Here is a link to the talk: https://dharmaseed.org/teacher/360/talk/54064/  The focus on Upadana starts at about 21 min.  

Below are some notes Mike created while listening to the talk (spelling of Pali words is almost certainly incorrect in most cases)

  1. Grasping sensuality – calma upadana (4 min)
    1. Anything you can have sense experience of can be grasped, bank account to meditation mat
    2. Call this affluence, security, wealth, etc. (society generally applauds this tendency)
    3. The things that make us safe make us prisoners – “where you grasp, that’s where it gets you”
    4. The very act of grasping to make things safer is the thing that produces most of what we hope to avoid….it is backfiring in a major way
    5. The “seeking mind” is a good name for this
  2. Identification with view – ditta updana (9 min)  [could cut further] 
    1. Attachment to any view will leave you in a vulnerable position (diet example…”everybody should do that”, then “if you don’t do this I don’t take you seriously”, then crusade) 
    2. 18:30 – trying to establish the primacy of my competence
    3. “Being right” is a good name for this
  3. Identification with technique – cilavatta upadana (about 20 min)
    1. “Having the right technique” is a good name of for this – me knowing how it works
    2. Modern examples = favorite diets, work out routines, electronic devices, right kind of vehicle, etc., “the right kind of…” anything
    3. Develop strategy of optimization, extends to relationships, etc. 
    4. Idea of “we can manage this” 
  4. Clinging to doctrines of self — Atavada upadana 
    1. All about being someone, creating an identity
    2. Create an identity that pretends to be permanent – chocolate éclair example
    3. With a permanent self – a soul – your problems are eternal
    4. Shift of perspective from smart thought to being a smart person  process of identification, we appropriate arising phenomena in our experiences
    5. Mantra: “This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.” 

The Insights that Lead to Awakening

This past week Margaret guided our reflections, focusing on those particular insights which lead to awakening.  Excerpts from the teaching of Culadasa (John Yates), an ordained monk and a buddhist practitioner for 40 years – and also a neuroscientist – were used to focus the discussion, thus extending our exploration of the contributions of neuroscience to practice.  

Margaret played audio excerpts from the following youtube talk given by Culadasa, on the five ultimate insights: 

Here is a link to the talks and guided and mediations on Culadasa’s website: http://culadasa.com/


Skillful Action, its foundations and expression

Lorilee guided our reflections this past Sunday, investigating the source of Skillful and Unskillful Actions.  Shantideva said “We are like senseless children who shrink from suffering, but love its causes.”  

  Through unskillful action, we often create suffering in our attempts to be happy.  From eating too much ice cream, to incessant activity, to avoiding difficult interactions, examples of unskillful action abound, along with the suffering that flows from them.

   Excerpts from a talk titled “Taking Refuge in Skillful Action” by Mark Nunberg (a Minneapolis Dharma teacher and a regular teacher at IMS), were used to help focus our thoughts, as we investigated what skillful action would look like for each of us in our individual lives.  

The talk is available here:

Why Buddhism is True

This past week, Jeffrey presented an overview of  the work of evolutionary psychologist Robert Wright, with a focus on Wright’s provocative book, Why Buddhism is True. His notes follow.

Wright claims that the Buddha’s path to become free from suffering actually addresses the inherent insatiable imperatives of our brain that developed through natural selection. The discussion will focus on the question of how emerging developments in neuroscience affect our practice, or whether they are ultimately, irrelevant.

Jeffrey presented the Modular Model of the Mind, as outlined in Robert Wright’s book, Why Buddhism is True. Wright’s argument is that our brains evolved bit by bit through natural selection, and as a consequence, we are prone to self-delusion and anxiety, leading to suffering. We are hard-wired to experience pleasure as fleeting, leading to constant cycle of craving, sating and dissatisfaction. Wright agrees with Buddha that there is no “CEO” style of self that is in control of our thoughts, feelings and actions. He contends that our minds are made up of “modules’, each with a specific evolutionarily-driven goal, such as satisfying hunger or spreading our genes. There is no overall self, instead, whichever module is most highly stimulated by information in the environment will tend to become dominant for a period of time. Because buddhism shares very similar notions about craving as the source of suffering, the buddhist prescription for relief from suffering makes sense to Wright. 

Wright presents his ideas and explores new territory on his “vidcast” show.

Finding Freedom in the Heart of Vows

On this last session of 2018, Michael led the Sangha discussion on the topic of vows. Below are his notes.

At this time of year many are formulating resolutions for the next 12 months. Research has shown that while these intentions are admirable their average duration is short, and they falter and disappear as enduring motivations in between 4 to 12 days.

There are of course many ways of setting a direction for our lives: wish becomes inclination, aspiration, intention, promise, vow, oath.

Vows have a prominent place in most forms of buddhist practice, and form a kind of framework in which we view the nature and success of our commitments. Our happiness and sense of meaning in life is affected by living according to vows we have set – and they are often keys to our sense of identity.

A relevant example: recently a large hospital surveyed all its workers, asking them to relate their degree of job satisfaction. To the surprise of the HR department, menial workers in the hospital – those who swept the floors, changed the bedpans, freshened the sheets, and the like – had among the highest degrees of job satisfaction in the hospital. This merited further investigation, and when those conducting the survey met with these workers, among the questions they asked was “How do you define your work here?” A large percentage (and those among the most satisfied with their jobs) responded, “I am a healer.”
They went on to explain: “When I come in to clean, even if the patient is said to be in a coma, I talk to them just as if they could hear and react as anyone would. You never know what’s going on inside, and being treated like they are human is bound to help them at some level.” Or, “When I go into the room of someone who’s been there for a few days, I switch the pictures around in the room, so they have a change – or if they have a favorite picture, I make sure it’s the one in prime space to see.” And so on. These people had formulated their own vows to be Healers, participating deeply in the care the hospital gave.

In Buddhism, we might focus on two sets of vows, and bring these beyond ritual repetitions and into life-shaping commitments.
The Refuge Vows are
I take refuge in the Buddha
I take refuge in the Dharma
I take refuge in the Sangha

These vows constitute are, in fact, the commitments one makes to “become” a buddhist. A great deal could be said about each one, and much was said in our sangha session about these; here we can simply indicate some possibilities of the ways in which they can penetrate and shape our lives.

We can take refuge not only in appreciation of the spiritual genius of Shakyamuni Buddha, but in the profound fact that a human being in no way supernatural can achieve complete freedom and clarity. In Dogen’s famous description of enlightenment as “The Moon in the Dewdrop,” we see an image of full and complete enlightenment as embodied in each of us, each sentient being, even though our lives are as ephemeral as dew.

When we take refuge in the Dharma, we not only commit to study the teachings of buddhism, but to appreciate his distinct position in the philosophical culture of his time, which strongly resembles our own. Teachers then made their livings by going from village to village offering their perspectives and disciplines, and thus even ordinary people could be exposed to a variety of spiritual viewpoints. Today we have a similar situation with the internet, meditation centers, and the wide diffusion of spiritual teachings. But the Buddha distinguished himself from other teachers by an unswerving emphasis on causal and effect, both in his investigations, and in the disciplines he recommended people follow to lead them to realization of their own fullest being. In this he was distinct from the nihilists who said that no values were worth adhering to, to the fatalists who said our lives were predestined and we could have no effect on their course, the ritualists who felt their performance of sacrifices kept the world turning and assured their place in it, and the magical thinkers who thought they could change the course of the world by appealing to the gods in prayer. The Buddha asked his followers to see the facts of their lives, including their sufferings, as results of causes that could be discovered, and then worked upon, to eliminate the life poisoning effects of greed, anger, and delusion.

And finally, refuge in the Sangha means associating with people who will support your own integrity in walking the spiritual path — whether those people are identifiably buddhist, or whether they are simply others who are committed to clarifying their lives and expanding their compassion.

The second set of vows which loom large in the buddhist community are the Bodhisattva vows, which we see mainly in the various kinds of Mahayana buddhism, such as Zen and Pure Land. But many Vipassana practitioners, in the Theravada school find them meaningful as well.

Sentient Beings are numberless; I vow to liberate them all.
Delusions are endless; I vow to abandon them all.
Dharma gates are countless; I vow to enter them all.
The Buddha Way is inconceivable; I vow to embody it fully.

What distinguishes these vows is their almost incomprehensible sweep. In a sense, one could spend one’s whole life trying to fulfill them. I personally remember taking up the first vow with my Zen Master, and explaining that it was of course impossible for me to liberate all beings. Hmmm, he said, looking as if he was considering my special case, and hearing this reservation for the first time. “Well, perhaps you could liberate them from your opinion of them.” I need hardly say how deeply that struck me, and how much it changed my orientation toward life.

And even if we think these are impossible goals – we can in fact see them actually being fulfilled around us, by people in all faith disciplines.

Taking the Bodhisattva Vow implies that instead of holding onto our individual territory and defending it tooth and nail we become open to the world that we are living in. It means we are willing to take on greater responsibility, immense responsibility. In fact it means taking a big chance.

Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche – https://tricycle.org/magazine/bodhisattva-vow-eight-views/

Wholesome Desire

Today Payton led our Sangha discussion on the topic of Desire and its role in our daily life and our practice.

This is a season of classic desire, and while the Buddhist path suggests that we try to find a way to be without desire, that instruction isn’t meant to be applied all the time. Rather, if we can find a way to quiet the strong pull of desire in our minds, this gives us the opportunity to recognize when desires arise and choose whether to follow them. And how do we know when to follow them?

Gil Fronsdal sums it up nicely:

Any circumstance you’re in, don’t make it worse; improve on it….

If you haven’t yet made it worse, don’t make it worse. If you’re making it worse, stop doing it. If you haven’t made it better yet, start doing it. If you’re making it better, keep doing it.

Gil Fronsdal

Payton played a talk by Gil, which is available here:

The Five Strengths

Ginny led our reflections this past Sunday morning, focusing particularly on The Five Strengths outlined by the Buddha, which can support us in our practice.  Of particular interest are the ways in which these Strengths support healing, cultivating joy and connection.

Probably thinking of the monkey mind, Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche once said, “In the garden of gentle sanity, may you be bombarded by the coconuts of wakefulness.”  Other insights from Trungpa and Pema Chodron were used to support the presentation. 

Here are Ginny’s notes:

Last week in my morning reading/practice I read the chapter on Strengths in Pema Chodron’s book The Places that Scare You: A Guide to Fearlessness in Difficult Times and thought – ah ha!  It was like getting struck by a coconut… practice!, by working with these inherent capacities joy is accessible regardless of our relative experience. I had this flash of how my own experience of joy was connected to my ability to stay present with what was right in front of me – without attachment. And beyond that, my capacity to be present in this way allowed me to bring lightness and spaciousness to my practice. I saw this in stark relief to my “striving” for perfection, approval and an experience of goodness that was outside of me. 

The Five Strengths – (Five Faculties – that when cultivated and practiced become strengths)

  1. faith or conviction or belief (saddha, Shraddha)
    1. strong determination
  2. energy or persistence or perseverance (virya)
    1. familiarization
  3. mindfulness or memory (sati)
    1. Seed of goodness 
  4. stillness of the mind (Samadhi)
    1. reproach (story of the Geshe Ben – and the grain)
  5. wisdom or understanding or comprehension (pañña).
    1. aspiration

The story that captured my attention initially was one that Pema shared to describe the 4th strength as defined in her tradition – Reproach. 

Here is a talk that Ginny played by Gil Fronsdal, entitled Being the ant or the elephant – cultivating the 5 spiritual strengths

https://www.audiodharma.org/talks/audio_player/6732.html

Poem for closing sit

TRIPPING OVER JOY – by Hafiz

What is the difference
Between your experience of Existence
And that of a saint?

The saint knows
That the spiritual path
Is a sublime chess game with God

And that the Beloved
Has just made such a Fantastic Move 

That the saint is now continually
Tripping over Joy
And bursting out in Laughter
And saying, “I Surrender!”

Whereas, my dear,
I am afraid you still think
You have a thousand serious moves.