The Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, Rupert Gethin

This is an excellent, even handed treatise on the history of Buddhism, and the differences between the different lineages. It is a little academic, but nonetheless it is highly recommended.

Buddhism, an Illustrated Guide, Oxford University Press, Kevin Trainor

This is also an excellent, general text on the history of Buddhism, as well as a survey of the Buddhist landscape. Note that Professor Trainor is in the school of religion at the University of Vermont.

Access to Insight

This is an invaluable source of information on Theravada Buddhism, including much of the Pali Canon. Note that the Pali translations by Thanissaro Bhikkhu are a little unconventional.